Flaxseed: Health Benefits, Side Effects, Uses, Dose & Precautions (2023)

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Adlercreutz H. Diet, breast cancer, and sex hormone metabolism. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1990;595:281-90. View abstract.

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Alvarez-Perea A, Alzate -Pérez D, Doleo Maldonado A, Baeza ML. Anaphylaxis caused by flaxseed. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2013;23(6):446-7. View abstract.

Arjmandi BH. The role of phytoestrogens in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in ovarian hormone deficiency. J Am Coll Nutr 2001;20:398S-402S. View abstract.

Azrad M, Vollmer RT, Madden J, Dewhirst M, Polascik TJ, Snyder DC, Ruffin MT, Moul JW, Brenner DE, Demark-Wahnefried W. Flaxseed-derived enterolactone is inversely associated with tumor cell proliferation in men with localized prostate cancer. J Med Food. 2013 Apr;16(4):357-60. View abstract.

Bierenbaum ML, Reichstein R, Watkins TR. Reducing atherogenic risk in hyperlipemic humans with flaxseed supplementation: a preliminary report. J Am Coll Nutr 1993;12:501-4. View abstract.

Bloedon LT, Balikai S, Chittams J, et al. Flaxseed and cardiovascular risk factors: results from a double blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial. J Am Coll Nutr 2008;27:65-74. View abstract.

Bloedon LT, Szapary PO. Flaxseed and cardiovascular risk. Nutr Rev 2004;62:18-27. View abstract.

Brooks JD, Ward WE, Lewis JE, et al. Supplementation with flaxseed alters estrogen metabolism in postmenopausal women to a greater extent than does supplementation with an equal amount of soy. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;79:318-25.. View abstract.

Brouwer IA, Katan MB, Zock PL. Dietary alpha-linolenic acid is associated with reduced risk of fatal coronary heart disease, but increased prostate cancer risk: a meta-analysis. J Nutr 2004;134:919-22. View abstract.

Caligiuri SP, Aukema HM, Ravandi A, Guzman R, Dibrov E, Pierce GN. Flaxseed consumption reduces blood pressure in patients with hypertension by altering circulating oxylipins via an a-linolenic acid-induced inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase. Hypertension. 2014 Jul;64(1):53-9. View abstract.

Chavarro JE, Stampfer MJ, Li H, et al. A prospective study of polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in blood and prostate cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2007;16:1364-70. View abstract.

Chen J, Hui E, Ip T, Thompson LU. Dietary flaxseed enhances the inhibitory effect of tamoxifen on the growth of estrogen-dependent human breast cancer (mcf-7) in nude mice. Clin Cancer Res 2004;10:7703-11. View abstract.

Chen J, Power KA, Mann J, et al. Dietary flaxseed interaction with tamoxifen induced tumor regression in athymic mice with MCF-7 xenografts by downregulating the expression of estrogen related gene products and signal transduction pathways. Nutr Cancer 2007;58:162-70. View abstract.

Chen J, Power KA, Mann J, et al. Flaxseed alone or in combination with tamoxifen inhibits MCF-7 breast tumor growth in ovariectomized athymic mice with high circulating levels of estrogen. Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 2007;232:1071-80. View abstract.

Chen J, Wang L, Thompson LU. Flaxseed and its components reduce metastasis after surgical excision of solid human breast tumor in nude mice. Cancer Lett 2006;234:168-75. View abstract.

Clark WF, Kortas C, Heidenheim P, et al. Flaxseed in lupus nephritis: a two-year nonplacebo-controlled crossover study. J Am Coll Nutr 2001;20:143-8. View abstract.

Clark WF, Parbtani A, Huff MW, et al. Flaxseed: a potential treatment for lupus nephritis. Kidney Int 1995;48:475-80. View abstract.

Cockerell KM, Watkins AS, Reeves LB, et al. Effects of linseeds on the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome: a pilot randomised controlled trial. J Hum Nutr Diet 2012;25:435-43. View abstract.

Colli MC, Bracht A, Soares AA, et al. Evaluation of the efficacy of flaxseed meal and flaxseed extract in reducing menopausal symptoms. J Med Food 2012;15:840-5. View abstract.

Cornish SM, Chilibeck PD, Paus-Jennsen L, et al. A randomized controlled trial of the effects of flaxseed lignan complex on metabolic syndrome composite score and bone mineral in older adults. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2009;34:89-98. View abstract.

Cotterchio M, Boucher BA, Kreiger N, et al. Dietary phytoestrogen intake--lignans and isoflavones--and breast cancer risk (Canada). Cancer Causes Control 2008;19:259-72. View abstract.

Cotterchio M, Boucher BA, Manno M, et al. Dietary phytoestrogen intake is associated with reduced colorectal cancer risk. J Nutr 2006;136:3046-53. View abstract.

Coulman KD, Liu Z, Michaelides J, et al. Fatty acids and lignans in unground whole flaxseed and sesame seed are bioavailable but have minimal antioxidant and lipid-lowering effects in postmenopausal women. Mol Nutr Food Res 2009;53:1366-75. View abstract.

Crawford M, Galli C, Visioli F, et al. Role of Plant-Derived Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Human Nutrition. Ann Nutr Metab 2000;44:263-5. View abstract.

Cunnane SC, Ganguli S, Menard C, et al. High alpha-linolenic acid flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum): some nutritional properties in humans. Br J Nutr 1993;69:443-53. View abstract.

Cunnane SC, Hamadeh MJ, Liede AC, et al. Nutritional attributes of traditional flaxseed in healthy young adults. Am J Clin Nutr 1995;61:62-8. View abstract.

de Deckere EAM, Korver O, Verschuren PM, Katan MB. Health aspects of fish and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids from plant and marine origin. Eur J Clin Nutr 1998;52:749-53. View abstract.

De Stefani E, Deneo-Pellegrini H, Boffetta P, et al. Alpha-linolenic acid and risk of prostate cancer: a case-control study in Uruguay. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2000;9:335-8. View abstract.

Demark-Wahnefried W, Polascik TJ, George SL, et al. Flaxseed supplementation (not dietary fat restriction) reduces prostate cancer proliferation rates in men presurgery. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2008;17:3577-87. View abstract.

Demark-Wahnefried W, Price DT, Polascik TJ, et al. Pilot study of dietary fat restriction and flaxseed supplementation in men with prostate cancer before surgery: exploring the effects on hormonal levels, prostate-specific antigen, and histopathologic features. Urology 2001;58:47-52. View abstract.

Demark-Wahnefried W, Robertson CN, Walther PJ, et al. Pilot study to explore effects of low-fat, flaxseed-supplemented diet on proliferation of benign prostatic epithelium and prostate-specific antigen. Urology 2004;63:900-4.. View abstract.

Dodin S, Lemay A, Jacques H, et al. The effects of flaxseed dietary supplement on lipid profile, bone mineral density, and symptoms in menopausal women: a randomized, double-blind, wheat germ placebo-controlled clinical trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2005;90:1390-7. View abstract.

Edel AL, Rodriguez-Leyva D, Maddaford TG, Caligiuri SP, Austria JA, Weighell W, Guzman R, Aliani M, Pierce GN. Dietary flaxseed independently lowers circulating cholesterol and lowers it beyond the effects of cholesterol-lowering medications alone in patients with peripheral artery disease. J Nutr. 2015 Apr;145(4):749-57. View abstract.

Faizi S, Siddiqui BS, Saleem R, et al. Hypotensive constituents from the pod of Moringa oleifera. Planta Med 1998;64:225-8. View abstract.

Fink BN, Steck SE, Wolff MS, et al. Dietary flavonoid intake and breast cancer risk among women on Long Island. Am J Epidemiol 2007;165:514-23. View abstract.

Finnegan YE, Minihane AM, Leigh-Firbank EC, et al. Plant- and marine-derived n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have differential effects on fasting and postprandial blood lipid concentrations and on the susceptibility of LDL to oxidative modification in moderately hyperlipidemic subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 2003;77:783-95. View abstract.

Freese R, Mutanen M. Alpha-linolenic acid and marine long-chain n-3 fatty acids differ only slightly in their effects on hemostatic factors in healthy subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;66:591-8. View abstract.

Giovannucci E, Rimm EB, Colditz GA, et al. A prospective study of dietary fat and risk of prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 1993;85:1571-9. View abstract.

Goss PE, Li T, Theriault M, et al. Effects of dietary flaxseed in women with cyclical mastalgia. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2000;64:49

Haggans CJ, Hutchins AM, Olson BA, et al. Effect of flaxseed consumption on urinary estrogen metabolites in postmenopausal women. Nutr Cancer 1999;33:188-95. View abstract.

Haggans CJ, Travelli EJ, Thomas W, et al. The effect of flaxseed and wheat bran consumption on urinary estrogen metabolites in premenopausal women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2000;9:719-25. View abstract.

Hashempur MH, Homayouni K, Ashraf A, Salehi A, Taghizadeh M, Heydari M. Effect of Linum usitatissimum L. (linseed) oil on mild and moderate carpal tunnel syndrome: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Daru. 2014;22:43. View abstract.

Heald CL, Ritchie MR, Bolton-Smith C, et al. Phyto-oestrogens and risk of prostate cancer in Scottish men. Br J Nutr 2007;98:388-96. View abstract.

Hedelin M, Lof M, Olsson M, et al. Dietary phytoestrogens are not associated with risk of overall breast cancer but diets rich in coumestrol are inversely associated with risk of estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor negative breast tumors in Swedish women. J Nutr 2008;138:938-45. View abstract.

Hutchins AM, Brown BD, Cunnane SC, Domitrovich SG, Adams ER, Bobowiec CE. Daily flaxseed consumption improves glycemic control in obese men and women with pre-diabetes: a randomized study. Nutr Res. 2013 May;33(5):367-75. View abstract.

Ibrügger S, Kristensen M, Mikkelsen MS, Astrup A. Flaxseed dietary fiber supplements for suppression of appetite and food intake. Appetite 2012;58:490-5. View abstract.

Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, Vidgen E, et al. Health aspects of partially defatted flaxseed, including effects on serum lipids, oxidative measures, and ex vivo androgen and progestin activity: a controlled, crossover trial. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;69:395-402. View abstract.

Khalatbari Soltani S, Jamaluddin R, Tabibi H, Mohd Yusof BN, Atabak S, Loh SP, Rahmani L. Effects of flaxseed consumption on systemic inflammation and serum lipid profile in hemodialysis patients with lipid abnormalities. Hemodial Int. 2013 Apr;17(2):275-81. View abstract.

Khalesi S, Irwin C, Schubert M. Flaxseed consumption may reduce blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials. J Nutr. 2015 Apr;145(4):758-65. View abstract.

Khan G, Penttinen P, Cabanes A, et al. Maternal flaxseed diet during pregnancy or lactation increases female rat offspring's susceptibility to carcinogen-induced mammary tumorigenesis. Reprod Toxicol 2007;23:397-406. View abstract.

Kilkkinen A, Stumpf K, Pietinen P, et al. Determinants of serum enterolactone concentration. Am J Clin Nutr 2001;73:1094-100. View abstract.

Koizumi Y, Arai H, Nagase H, Kano S, Tachizawa N, Sagawa T, Yamaguchi M, Ohta K. [Case report: anaphylaxis caused by linseed included in baked bread]. Arerugi. 2014 Jul;63(7):945-50. View abstract.

Kolonel LN, Nomura AM, Cooney RV. Dietary fat and prostate cancer: current status. J Natl Cancer Inst 1999;91:414-28. View abstract.

Kuijsten A, Arts IC, Hollman PC, et al. Plasma enterolignans are associated with lower colorectal adenoma risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2006;15:1132-6. View abstract.

Kuijsten A, Hollman PC, Boshuizen HC, et al. Plasma enterolignan concentrations and colorectal cancer risk in a nested case-control study. Am J Epidemiol 2008;167:734-42. View abstract.

Laaksonen DE, Laukkanen JA, Niskanen L, et al. Serum linoleic and total polyunsaturated fatty acids in relation to prostate and other cancers: a population-based cohort study. Int J Cancer 2004;111:444-50.. View abstract.

Laitinen LA, Tammela PS, Galkin A, et al. Effects of extracts of commonly consumed food supplements and food fractions on the permeability of drugs across Caco-2 cell monolayers. Pharm Res 2004;21:1904-16. View abstract.

Lampe JW, Martini MC, Kurzer MS, et al. Urinary lignan and isoflavonoid excretion in premenopausal women consuming flaxseed powder. Am J Clin Nutr 1994;60:122-8. View abstract.

Leitzmann MF, Stampfer MJ, Michaud DS, et al. Dietary intake of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids and the risk of prostate cancer. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80:204-16. View abstract.

Lemay A, Dodin S, Kadri N, et al. Flaxseed dietary supplement versus hormone replacement therapy in hypercholesterolemic menopausal women. Obstet Gynecol 2002;100:495-504.. View abstract.

Leon F, Rodriguez M, Cuevas M. Anaphylaxis to Linum. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) 2003;31:47-9. . View abstract.

Lewis JE, Nickell LA, Thompson LU, et al. A randomized controlled trial of the effect of dietary soy and flaxseed muffins on quality of life and hot flashes during menopause. Menopause 2006;13:631-42. View abstract.

Lucas EA, Wild RD, Hammond LJ, et al. Flaxseed improves lipid profile without altering biomarkers of bone metabolism in postmenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2002;87:1527-32.. View abstract.

Mandasescu S, Mocanu V, Dascalita AM, et al. Flaxseed supplementation in hyperlipidemic patients. Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi 2005;109:502-6. View abstract.

Mani UV, Mani I, Biswas M, Kumar SN. An open-label study on the effect of flax seed powder (Linum usitatissimum) supplementation in the management of diabetes mellitus. J Diet Suppl 2011;8:257-65. View abstract.

Milder IE, Feskens EJ, Arts IC, et al. Intakes of 4 dietary lignans and cause-specific and all-cause mortality in the Zutphen Elderly Study. Am J Clin Nutr 2006;84:400-5. View abstract.

Mousavi Y, Adlercreutz H. Enterolactone and estradiol inhibit each other's proliferative effect on MCF-7 breast cancer cells in culture. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 1992;41:615-9.. View abstract.

Nesbitt PD, Lam Y, Thompson LU. Human metabolism of mammalian lignan precursors in raw and processed flaxseed. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;69:549-55. View abstract.

Nordstrom DC, Honkanen VE, Nasu Y, et al. Alpha-linolenic acid in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. A double-blind, placebo-controlled and randomized study: flaxseed vs. safflower seed. Rheumatol Int 1995;14:231-4. View abstract.

Oomah BD. Flaxseed as a functional food source. J Sci Food Agric. 2001;81:889-894.

Pan A, Demark-Wahnefried W, Ye X, et al. Effects of a flaxseed-derived lignan supplement on C-reactive protein, IL-6 and retinol-binding protein 4 in type 2 diabetic patients. Br J Nutr 2008;101:1145-9. View abstract.

Pan A, Yu D, Demark-Wahnefried W, et al. Meta-analysis of the effects of flaxseed interventions on blood lipids. Am J Clin Nutr 2009;90:288-97. View abstract.

Patade A, Devareddy L, Lucas EA, et al. Flaxseed reduces total and LDL cholesterol concentrations in Native American postmenopausal women. J Womens Health (Larchmt) 2008;17:355-66. View abstract.

Prasad K, Mantha SV, Muir AD, Westcott ND. Reduction of hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis by CDC-flaxseed with very low alpha-linolenic acid. Atherosclerosis 1998;136:367-75. View abstract.

Prasad K. Dietary flax seed in prevention of hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis 1997;132:69-76. View abstract.

Pruthi S, Qin R, Terstreip SA, et al. A phase III, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of flaxseed for the treatment of hot flashes: North Central Cancer Treatment Group N08C7. Menopause 2012;19:48-53. View abstract.

Ramon JM, Bou R, Romea S, et al. Dietary fat intake and prostate cancer risk: a case-control study in Spain. Cancer Causes Control 2000;11:679-85. View abstract.

Rhee Y, Brunt A. Flaxseed supplementation improved insulin resistance in obese glucose intolerant people: a randomized crossover design. Nutr J 2011;10:44. View abstract.

Rickard SE, Yuan YV, Thompson LU. Plasma insulin-like growth factor I levels in rats are reduced by dietary supplementation of flaxseed or its lignan secoisolariciresinol diglycoside. Cancer Lett 2000;161:47-55. View abstract.

Rodriguez-Leyva D, Weighell W, Edel AL, LaVallee R, Dibrov E, Pinneker R, Maddaford TG, Ramjiawan B, Aliani M, Guzman R, Pierce GN. Potent antihypertensive action of dietary flaxseed in hypertensive patients. Hypertension. 2013 Dec;62(6):1081-9. View abstract.

Rose DP. Dietary fiber and breast cancer. Nutr Cancer 1990;13:1-8.. View abstract.

Saarinen NM, Power K, Chen J, Thompson LU. Flaxseed attenuates the tumor growth stimulating effect of soy protein in ovariectomized athymic mice with MCF-7 human breast cancer xenografts. Int J Cancer 2006;119:925-31. View abstract.

Sairanen U, Piirainen L, Nevala R, Korpela R. Yoghurt containing galacto-oligosaccharides, prunes and linseed reduces the severity of mild constipation in elderly subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr 2007;61:1423-8. View abstract.

Schabath MB, Hernandez LM, Wu X, et al. Dietary phytoestrogens and lung cancer risk. JAMA 2005;294:1493-1504. View abstract.

Serraino M, Thompson LU. The effect of flaxseed supplementation on early risk markers for mammary carcinogenesis. Cancer Lett 1991;60:135-42. View abstract.

Serraino M, Thompson LU. The effect of flaxseed supplementation on the initiation and promotional stages of mammary tumorigenesis. Nutr Cancer 1992;17:153-9. View abstract.

Simbalista RL, Sauerbronn AV, Aldrighi JM, Areas JA. Consumption of a flaxseed-rich food is not more effective than a placebo in alleviating the climacteric symptoms of postmenopausal women. J Nutr 2010;140:293-7. View abstract.

Sonestedt E, Borgquist S, Ericson U, et al. Enterolactone is differently associated with estrogen receptor beta-negative and -positive breast cancer in a Swedish nested case-control study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2008;17:3241-51. View abstract.

Sung MK, Lautens M, Thompson LU. Mammalian lignans inhibit the growth of estrogen-independent human colon tumor cells. Anticancer Res 1998;18:1405-8. View abstract.

Suzuki R, Rylander-Rudqvist T, Saji S, et al. Dietary lignans and postmenopausal breast cancer risk by oestrogen receptor status: a prospective cohort study of Swedish women. Br J Cancer 2008;98:636-40. View abstract.

Taylor, C. G., Noto, A. D., Stringer, D. M., Froese, S., and Malcolmson, L. Dietary milled flaxseed and flaxseed oil improve N-3 fatty acid status and do not affect glycemic control in individuals with well-controlled type 2 diabetes. J Am Coll Nutr 2010;29(1):72-80. View abstract.

Thanos J, Cotterchio M, Boucher BA, et al. Adolescent dietary phytoestrogen intake and breast cancer risk (Canada). Cancer Causes Control 2006;17:1253-61. View abstract.

Thompson LU, Chen JM, Li T, et al. Dietary flaxseed alters tumor biological markers in postmenopausal breast cancer. Clin Cancer Res 2005;11:3828-35. View abstract.

Thompson LU, Rickard SE, Cheung F, et al. Variability in anticancer lignan levels in flaxseed. Nutr Cancer 1997;27:26-30. View abstract.

Thompson LU, Rickard SE, Orcheson LJ, Seidl MM. Flaxseed and its lignan and oil components reduce mammary tumor growth at a late stage of carcinogenesis. Carcinogenesis 1996;17:1373-6. View abstract.

Touillaud MS, Thiebaut AC, Fournier A, et al. Dietary lignan intake and postmenopausal breast cancer risk by estrogen and progesterone receptor status. J Natl Cancer Inst 2007;99:475-86. View abstract.

Verheus M, van Gils CH, Keinan-Boker L, et al. Plasma phytoestrogens and subsequent breast cancer risk. J Clin Oncol 2007;25:648-55. View abstract.

Wang C, Makela T, Hase T, et al. Lignans and flavonoids inhibit aromatase enzyme in human preadipocytes. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 1994;50:205-12.. View abstract.

Wang L, Chen J, Thompson LU. The inhibitory effect of flaxseed on the growth and metastasis of estrogen receptor negative human breast cancer xenografts is attributed to both its lignan and oil components. Int J Cancer 2005;116:793-8. View abstract.

Wong H, Chahal N, Manlhiot C, Niedra E, McCrindle BW. Flaxseed in pediatric hyperlipidemia: a placebo-controlled, blinded, randomized clinical trial of dietary flaxseed supplementation for children and adolescents with hypercholesterolemia. JAMA Pediatr. 2013 Aug 1;167(8):708-13. View abstract.

Wu H, Pan A, Yu Z, et al. Lifestyle counseling and supplementation with flaxseed or walnuts influence the management of metabolic syndrome. J Nutr 2010;140:1937-42. View abstract.

Zeleniuch-Jacquotte A, Lundin E, Micheli A, et al. Circulating enterolactone and risk of endometrial cancer. Int J Cancer 2006;119:2376-81. View abstract.

Zhang W, Wang X, Liu Y, et al. Effects of dietary flaxseed lignan extract on symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia. J Med Food 2008;11:207-14. View abstract.

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